HUNGARIANS IN THE NETHERLANDS
Short survey and history
Contacts between the Netherlands and Hungary started with Maria of Hungary, widow of Lajos (Lewis) II King of Hungary and Bohemia, fallen in the battle of Mohács against the Turcs in 1526. She was a sister of Emperor Charles V of Habsburg. She was governess of the Netherlands (later Belgium and Holland) between 1531 and 1555. Her government marked a period of stability and steady growth in the Low Lands. In 1993 a great exposition demonstrated her role in the history of Belgium and Holland with numerous objects also from Hungarian museums.
After the Reformation close contacts developed between the Seven Provinces
of the Netherlands and Transsylvania (in the second half of the 16th and in the
17th centuries representing the Hungarian national identity). Both they were
governed by a Calvinist (Presbiterian) elite and tolerant in religious affairs.
They participated as allies to the Thirty Years' War in Europe on the side of
the Protestant countries and both they were signatories to the Peace Treaty of
Westphalia in 1648. (The freedom of religion was in Europe for the first time
officially proclaimed in 1568 in Torda, Transsylvania, after de facto
recognition as from 1551.) In 1676, many Hungarian protestant ministers - sent
to the galleys by the 'Bloody Councils' organized by the Habsburg kings of
Hungary during the 'Counter-Reformation'- were liberated by Admiral De Ruyter
of the Netherlands from the galleys of the viceroy of Naples. A great number of
protestant students from Hungary (i.e. the Carpatian Bassin) visited the
universities of Holland as well as the universities of Switzerland, Scotland
and Germany. One of them was, in the 17th century, Miklós Misztótfalusi Kis
(Amsterdam), the maker of the internationally well known 'Jansonius'
printletters. He made also an improved Hungarian translation of the Bible,
which he edited in Amsterdam under the name 'Golden Bible'. The Hungarian Bible
(first edition in 1590 in Hungary) was edited during centuries in Holland,
Switzerland and Scotland. The tradition for Hungarian theologians to study at
Dutch universities continued since the 17th century until today. Also nowadays
many Hungarians are visiting Dutch schools and universities (all faculties).
Numerous professors, lectors etc. at Dutch universities are of Hungarian
origin. (This is the case also in other countries.)
After World War I many 'children-trains' came to Holland out of Hungary and Austria with under-nourished children in order to get them fit again. Numerous personal contacts developed between the receiving families in Holland and the families of the children in Hungary. The 'children-trains' have been re-started after World War II until the Hungarian authorities, in 1948, on Russian order made an end to these human contacts. *
After World War I a great number of Hungarian medical doctors and engineers emigrated to the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). The survivors of the Japanese camps came after World War II to Holland.
In the 1920's, Hungarian miners, working in the mines in Limburg Province, formed the first Hungarian association in the Netherlands, the 'St. Barbara Union'. It existed until the 1970's.
In the 1930's the 'First Hungarian Ladies Club in The Hague' was founded. The club, which deployed important welfare activities before, during and after World War II, terminated its activities in the 1970's.
Information concerning organizations active at present see below.
1956 AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
In 1956 during the Hungarian Revolution (23th of October - 4th of November and the period of suppression after the Russian attack) a small country revolted against one of the two greatest military powers of the world. Hungarians were the only nation behind the 'Iron Curtain', which - with a constitutional government - fought with weapons for its liberty against the Soviet Union.
200.000 Hungarians fled their country. 5000 of the refugees found a new home in Holland. People of Hungarian origin in the Netherlands consist for a substantial part of refugees of 1956/1957.
In the acceptance of the refugees in 1956/57 members of the (former) Dutch Resistance Movement during World War II fulfilled an important task because the Dutch people recognized its own fate during the War in the drama of the Hungarian people.
Since the end of World War II on the 4th of May of every year at 8 o' clock in the evening the street-lamps in the Netherlands are switched on. Trams, motor cars, people in the street stop. During two minutes the whole country stops - everybody where he or she is at that moment - and commemorates in silence the victims of the War. Only in one case commemorated the Dutch people in the same way the victims of another people: in november 1956, the victims of the Hungarian Revolution.
A Hungarian revolutionary flag was handed over to Queen Juliana in Utrecht by Hungarian refugees in 1956. This flag is kept in the Royal Archives in The Hague. It is used by the Hungarian Federation for the commemoration of the Revolution of 1956.
At this moment 8.000 - 10.000 people of Hungarian origin are living in the
Netherlands. Hungarians are as a rule well integrated on all levels in Dutch
society. Many of them, including their children, conserved their contacts with
their Hungarian cultural, social and ecclesiastical background.
ORGANIZATIONS: PRESENT SITUATION
For more details please read also 'HOLLANDIAI MAGYAR
HÍREK' (Information of the Hungarian Federation in the Netherlands).
In 1948, the CHURCHES started their activities among Hungarians in the
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
Different priests were active in Holland until 1999. At this moment there is no Hungarian priest with a responsibility for the Netherlands. Visiting Hungarian priests from Belgium say Holy Masses. All church activities take place under jurisdiction of the 'Episcopus Hungarorum in Exteris'. The ECCLESIASTICAL COUNCIL OF HUNGARIAN ROMAN CATHOLICS organizes pastoral work among Hungarians in the Netherlands. President: Dr. Egon Komarnicki. Secretary: 14, Kwikstaartlaan, 2261 EP Leidschendam, phone: +31.70.3276894. Post Bank Account nr. 1999017.
HOLY MASSES / WORD AND COMMUNION SERVICES:
PROTESTANT CHURCHES / REFORMED CHURCH
The HUNGARIAN REFORMED CHURCH IN DIASPORA - with the authorization of the Synod of the Reformed Church of Hungary - organised the pastoral activities among Hungarian reformed people in Western Europe after World War II. Rev. I.L. Tüski has been nominated by the Hungarian Reformed Church in Diaspora as pastor for the Benelux countries in 1951. - There is a narrow co-operation between Hungarian Reformed and Lutheran churches in Western Europe.
The HUNGARIAN PROTESTANT CHRISTIAN (REFORMED) PASTORAL SERVICE IN THE NETHERLANDS takes care of the pastoral work among Hungarians. President: Dr. Miklós I. Tóth. Pastors: Rev. István L. Tüski, Rev. Márta Tüski-Szabó and Rev. Drs. Márta Tüski. Address (ecclesiastical bureau for the Netherlands): 20, H. Tollensstraat, 3521 XX Utrecht, phone/fax: +31.30.2937788. Post Bank account nr: 3675.
The Pastoral Service is member of the Reformed Pastoral Service of Hungarian Language in Western Europe. It is member of the Consultative Synod (Convent) of Hungarian Reformed Churches (world wide). - Co-operation with the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk) and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland) as well as with the Reformed Church of Hungary.
The Pastoral Service is the owner of the HUNGARIAN COMMUNITY CENTER IN VIANEN (Nearby Utrecht), 17A, Panoven, NL-4133 NG Vianen (entrance opposite to Langeweg nr. 145), phone: 0347-375040. An essential part of the Protestant church activities in Holland takes place in this center. It serves also for meetings and activities of different other organizations. - (Public transport: please take bus nr. 117 at the Utrecht Railway Station and leave the bus at station 'Marienhof' in Vianen.)
European Protestant Hungarian 'Free University'. President: Dr. Pál Szôllôsy, 11, Lindenweg, CH-8118 Pfaffhausen, Switzerland. Phone: +41.1.8251720. 'Academic Days' 6th - 10th May 2000in Tata, Hungary. Subject: Our Health. Information: Dr. András Mónus, 15, Barackvirág u. H-2092 Budakeszi.
ASSOCIATIONS, CLUBS AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
HUNGARIA CLUB AMSTERDAM 1929. The name reflects the year of foundation of the club. It commemorated its 70th anniversary in 1999. It is one of the eldest Hungarian organisations in Europe outside the Carpatian Bassin. The Club organizes monthly meetings for members and friends. During the last years activities among youth are growing. The club organises every year the commemoration of the Hungarian National Holyday of the 15th of March (Constitutional Reforms of 1848 and War of Liberty) in co-operation with the Hungarian Federation in the Netherlands. (President: Pál Kántás, phone: +31.182.356060. Treasurer (information and address): József Berkó, 8, Tweebeen, NL-1544 VR Zaandijk, Phone: +31.75. 6286202.)
MIKES KELEMEN KÖR, Association for Hungarian Art and Literature in the
Address: Prof. Dr. Béla Bohus, president, 116, Kerkpad Z.Z., NL-3764 AT Soest. Phone/fax: +31.35.6010837. Secretary: Rev. Ágnes Csanády. Treasurer: Éva L. van Dam-Kronauer.
Post Bank account nr. 3777858, Penningmeester Mikes Kelemen Kör, Badhoevedorp. E-mail: email@example.com.
The association was founded in 1951 by Hungarian students at Dutch universities. As from the beginning meetings were organized with papers presented about scientific or literary subjects followed by a discussion. These meetings take place as a rule once per month in the Vianen Community Center.
The 'DAYS OF STUDY' (seminar) started in 1959. As from that year they take place in September of each year with well known scientists, philosophers, authors, poets, painters, composers, actors etcetera coming from different countries and from different continents.
This year the 41st DAYS OF STUDY take place between the 31st of August and the 3rd of September 2000 in Conference Center Mennorode in Elspeet (Holland). Main subject: THE WOMAN AT THE EDGE OF TWO MILLENIA. INFORMATION: Dr. Ottó Tánczos, 28, Kievitweg, NL-9765 JZ Paterswolde. Phone/fax: +31.50.3092318.
BOOKS. The Mikes Kelemen Kör edited 14 books, in majority with the texts of papers held during the Days of Study. The books are in Hungarian excepted two books in English, i.e.:
For the list of the books edited by the Mikes Kelemen Kör please read the Hungarian and/or Dutch texts of this homepage.
LITERARY AWARD. During the 'Days of Study' a 'Mikes' literary award, 'MAGYAR IRODALMI FIGYELÔ' ('Hungarian Literary Spectator') is granted by the Association to a living Hungarian author anywhere in the world. This literary prize is granted since 1982 on the advice of a well known literary critic or author, who pronounces the 'laudatio'. For names of authors who received the Mikes Literary Award as well as for the names of literary critics and authors, who proposed them for the prize see the Hungarian and Dutch texts of this homepage.
President: Ir. Kornél Polgár. Address: Sándor Mustó, secretary; 7, Vechtoever, NL-3555 SX Utrecht. Phone/Fax: +3130. Post Bank account: 2468717.
In 1951 started also the Association 'Pax Romana' its activities in the Netherlands. It is a movement of Hungarian Roman Catholic intellectuals active in many countries in the world. 'Pax Romana' Holland organizes meetings in the spring (in the year 2000: 27th May, in the Hungarian Community Center in Vianen) and in the autumn (this year: 24th and 25th november in Priorij Maarssen).
The annual meeting of the Hungarian Pax Romana organization takes place this year in Siófok, Hungary (Hotel Aranypart), between the 24th and the 29th of May 2000. Subject: The Family. Study of the last Episcopal Letter of the Hungarian Roman Catholic Bishops Council.
KÖLCSEY FERENC ASSOCIATION ALKMAAR
President (information): Mrs Maria Kenter, 28, J. Kalffweg, NL-1865 AR Bergen aan Zee, Phone: +31.72.5818200. Post Bank account nr. 6840213.
RÁKÓCZI CLUB LIMBURG
President (information): Lajos Radóka, 3, Pelikaanstraat, NL-6114 CV Heerlen. Phone: +31.45.5212192.
HUNGARIAN CLUB UTRECHT
Information: András Baranyai, 34, Franciscushof, NL-4133 BG Vianen, phone: +31.347.370326.
HUNGARIAN SCOUTS in the Netherlands. / Magyar Cserkész-szövetség 'Attila'
Information: Ir. Károly Nickl, 8, Eksterlaan, NL-5731 XV Mierlo. Phone: +31.492. 661736.
'TEKERGÔ' CHILDREN'S CAMP: For children. Age between 4 and 14 years. Information: Mrs Éva van Dam-Kronauer, 14, Liemers, NL-3524 TK Utrecht. Phone: +31.30.2803911 and +31.628.875669. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Homepage: www.geocities.com/tekergo_99.
FRIENDS OF DUNA TV in the Netherlands: Mrs Drs. Erzsébet Végh-Jakos, 2, Zilverschoonstraat, NL-2555 NJ Den Haag/The Hague. Phone/fax: +31.70.3252198.
ST. STEPHAN FOUNDATION: Help for children in Hungary. President: Tivadar Udvarhelyi, phone/fax: +31.316.330061. Secretary: József Küssel, phone/fax: +31.20.4532706.
FOUNDATION 'HUNGARY': For support of Hungarians in the Carpatian Bassin. Secretary: László Erhardt, 5 Leeuweriklaan, NL-7203 JD Zutphen. Phone: +31.575.519715. Fax: +31.575. 519743.
MEETINGS OF YOUNG HUNGARIANS (MAFI): Mainly for people living for a short period in the Netherlands. www.groups.yahoo.com/group/mafi_forum
AGRARIAN STUDENTS' PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE IN HORTICULTURAL ENTERPRISE OF GERGELY KOSDI: c/o Gergely Kosdi, 65, Floraweg, NL-2432 CD Noorden, Holland. Phone: +31.172.408431.
'MOST MAGYARUL" Bilingual (Dutch and Hungarian) Magazine: Excellent edition. Address: Edwin van Schie, 230, Eksterlaan, NL-2026 XM Haarlem. Phone/fax: +31.23.5389461. E-mail: Hongaars@hetnet.nl Homepage: http://holland.ini.hu/hongaars/index.html
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